8 minute speed dating houston - An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish

In pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), females use a temporary ornament, a striped pattern, to both attract males and intimidate rival females; in this case, the female of a species developed a sexually selected signal which serves a dual function of being both attractive to mates and deterring rivals.

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However, many species are not limited to just one of these behaviors, it has been shown that the males of a multitude of species ranging many taxa create complex multi-component signals that have an effect on more than one sensory modality, also known as multi-modal signals.

There are two leading hypotheses on the adaptive significance of multi-modal signal processing, the multiple message hypothesis states that each signal that a male exhibits will contribute to a possible mate's perception of the male.

Multi-modal signaling is not limited to just males.

Females in certain species have more than one trait or characteristic that is used in a courtship display to attract mates; in dance flies (Rhamphomyia longicauda), females have two ornaments, inflatable abdominal sacs and pinnate tibial scales, that they use as courtship displays in mating swarms.

In addition, some animals attempt to attract females through the construction and decoration of unique structures, this technique can be seen in Australia's satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus), in which males build and decorate nest-like structures called "bowers".

In most species, the male sex initiates courtship displays in pre-copulatory sexual selection.

Direct or indirect benefits to the female often determine which males reproduce and which do not.

Direct benefits may accrue to the female during male courtship behavior.

This stimulation, along with many other factors, results in subsequent copulation or rejection.

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